Brunelleschi's Dome: a curse called lightning
It is the largest dome ever built without the use of ribs /scaffolding to support the masonry. To get to the top of the terrace of the dome that forms the base of the lantern, we have to go through 463 steps, which allow us to observe closely the interior of the cathedral and above all one of the largest pictorial cycles in the world (3600 square meters).
The internal vaults contain the work of Vasari and Federico Zuccari, and the theme is the Universal Judgment, divided into two parts, one with images of Paradise the other with those very realistic and terrifying hell.
Also during the climb we have the opportunity to see the internal structure of the dome and learn some secrets, such as the presence of two cover caps, justified by Brunelleschi himself with these words: "Do another dome over it to keep it damp, and to make it more magnificent and swollen."
You have understood well, the problem had been the extreme difficulty in the distribution of the weight of this immense dome.
An ancient church, guardian of the "Stones of the Holy Sepulcher"
When Pazzino dei Pazzi returned from the crusade, which had brought the Holy City back into the hands of Christianity, he was received with all the honors due to a victorious leader. He had succeeded not only in returning home safe, but he had also brought with him a very precious relic and a new coat of arms which attested to the glory gained in the field; the same crest as the commander of the Crusader army, Godfrey IV, Duke of Buillon of Lower Lorraine.
Tradition tells us that the commander Goffredo di Buglione with eternal recognition for having climbed "first" on the enemy walls and waved the crusade, honored Pazzino dei Pazzi, granting him the privilege of adopting his own insignia, two golden dolphins in blue field with five scattered golden crosses（fresco insignia of the Pazzi）
The coat of arms surmounted a mural crown, which consisted of a crown crenellated by small towers: a tradition of the ancient Romans, who used to symbolize those who during the siege were the first to conquer the enemy walls.
In Jerusalem, after being freed by the crusaders, the "Blessed Fire" ceremony took place on Holy Saturday, it is still in use today.
The walls of the shells are light thanks to the arrangement of the herringbone bricks, a way of building that the architect had learned from ancient Roman buildings.
The weights are also distributed in the individual trapezoidal sails, held together by eight external ribs and 24 internal rampant spurs, according to the Gothic technique. The dome has a diameter of 45.5 meters and has become a world-famous monument today.